7장. 김프로 그리기

차례

1. 선택
1.1. 페더링
1.2. 부분적으로 투명한 선택 만들기
2. 선택 만들기와 사용하기
2.1. 선택 이동하기
2.2. 선택 더하기/빼기
3. The QuickMask
3.1. 개요
3.2. 속성
4. Using QuickMask Mode
5. 경로
5.1. Path Creation
5.2. Path Properties
5.3. 경로와 선택
5.4. 경로 변형하기
5.5. 경로따라 그리기
5.6. 경로와 텍스트
5.7. 경로와 SVG 파일
6. 붓
7. 새 붓 추가하기
8. GIH 대화 상자
9. 크기 조절이 가능한 브러쉬 만들기
9.1. 붓 크기 조절하기
9.2. 새 붓 빨리 만들기
10. 그라디언트
11. 무늬
12. 팔레트
12.1. 색상표
13. 프리셋
14. 간단한 물체 그리기
14.1. 직선 그리기
14.2. 기본 도형 그리기

1. 선택

Often when you operate on an image, you only want part of it to be affected. In GIMP, you make this happen by selecting that part. Each image has a selection associated with it. Most, but not all, GIMP operations act only on the selected portions of the image.

그림 7.1. 나무를 분리해 내려면?

나무를 분리해 내려면?

There are many, many situations where creating just the right selection is the key to getting the result you want, and often it is not easy to do. For example, in the above image, suppose I want to cut the tree out from its background, and paste it into a different image. To do this, I need to create a selection that contains the tree and nothing but the tree. It is difficult because the tree has a complex shape, and in several spots is hard to distinguish from the objects behind it.

그림 7.2. Selection shown as usual with dashed line.

Selection shown as usual with dashed line.

Now here is a very important point, and it is crucial to understand this. Ordinarily when you create a selection, you see it as a dashed line enclosing a portion of the image. The common, not entirely accurate, idea you could get from this, is that the selection is a sort of container, with the selected parts of the image inside, and the unselected parts outside. Although this concept of selection is okay for many purposes, it is not entirely correct.

사실 선택은 채널처럼 구현이 되므로, 내부 구조는 이미지의 빨강, 녹색, 파랑, 알파 채널 등과 동일합니다. 따라서 선택은 이미지의 각 픽셀에 0(선택안됨) 에서 255(완전히 선택됨) 의 값을 가지게 됩니다. 이러한 특징은 0 과 255 사이의 값을 가짐으로써 일부만 선택된 픽셀의 존재를 허용하게 됩니다. 이는 선택 영역과 비선택 영역의 부드러운 전환이 사용되는 상황에서 종종 확인할 수 있습니다.

자, 이제 선택을 하면 점선이 보이는지 확인합니다.

The dashed line is a contour line, dividing areas that are more than half selected from areas that are less than half selected.

그림 7.3. Same selection in QuickMask mode.

Same selection in QuickMask mode.

While looking at the dashed line that represents the selection, always remember that the line tells only part of the story. If you want to see the selection in complete detail, the easiest way is to click the QuickMask button in the lower left corner of the image window. This causes the selection to be shown as a translucent overlay atop the image. Selected areas are unaffected; unselected areas are reddened. The more completely selected an area is, the less red it appears.

Many operations work differently in QuickMask mode, as mentioned in the QuickMask overview. Use the QuickMask button in the lower left corner of the image window to toggle QuickMask mode on and off.

그림 7.4. Same selection in QuickMask mode after feathering.

Same selection in QuickMask mode after feathering.

1.1. 페더링

With the default settings, the basic selection tools, such as the Rectangle Select tool, create sharp selections. Pixels inside the dashed line are fully selected, and pixels outside completely unselected. You can verify this by toggling QuickMask: you see a clear rectangle with sharp edges, surrounded by uniform red. Use the Feather edges checkbox in the Tool Options to toggle between graduated selections and sharp selections. The feather radius, which you can adjust, determines the distance over which the transition occurs.

If you are following along, try this with the Rectangle Select tool, and then toggle QuickMask. You will see that the clear rectangle has a fuzzy edge.

Feathering is particularly useful when you are cutting and pasting, so that the pasted object blends smoothly and unobtrusively with its surroundings.

It is possible to feather a selection at any time, even if it was originally created as a sharp selection. Use SelectFeather from the image menu to open the Feather Selection dialog. Set the feather radius and click OK. Use SelectSharpen to do the opposite—sharpen a graduated selection into an all-or-nothing selection.

[참고] 참고

기술적 설명 : 페더링은 선택 채널에 특정 반경값의 가우시안 블루어를 적용한 것과 같은 것입니다.

1.2. 부분적으로 투명한 선택 만들기

You can set layer opacity, but you cannot do that directly for a selection. It is quite useful to make the image of a glass transparent. Use the following methods to set the layer opacity:

  • For simple selections, use the Eraser tool with the desired opacity.

  • For complex selections: use SelectionFloating to create a floating selection. This creates a new layer with the selection called Floating Selection (4.5절. “Float”). Set the opacity slider in the Layer Dialog to the desired opacity. Then anchor the selection: outside the selection, the mouse pointer includes an anchor. When you click while the mouse pointer includes the anchor, the floating selection disappears from the Layer Dialog and the selection is at the right place and partially transparent (anchoring works this way only if a selection tool is activated : you can also use the Anchor Layer command in the context menu by right clicking on the selected layer in the layer dialog).

    And, if you use this function frequently: Ctrl-C to copy the selection, Ctrl-V to paste the clipboard as a floating selection, and LayerNew Layer to turn the selection into a new layer. You can adjust the opacity before, or after creating the new layer.

  • Another way: use LayerMaskAdd Layer Mask to add a layer mask to the layer with the selection, initializing it with the selection. Then use a brush with the desired opacity to paint the selection with black, i.e. paint it with transparency. Then Layer/Mask/Apply Layer Mask. See 2.1.3절. “Layer masks”.

  • To make the solid background of an image transparent, add an Alpha channel, and use the Magic Wand to select the background. Then, use the Color Picker tool to select the background color, which becomes the foreground color in Toolbox. Use the Bucket Fill tool with the selected color. Set the Bucket Fill mode to Color Erase, which erases pixels with the selected color; other pixels are partially erased and their color is changed.

    The simplest method is to use EditClear, which gives complete transparency to a selection.